Animal Models

1. Model of recreational use

Short access self-administration

Limited access (1-2h/day) to alcohol, nicotine or drugs

2. Models of dependence and compulsive use

Long access self-administration

Extended access (6-23h/day) to alcohol, nicotine or drugs

3. Models of dependence

Minipumps, injections, gavage

Extended passive exposure (weeks) to alcohol, nicotine or drugs

Binge/Intoxication

Genetics model of high self-administration

Alcohol preferring rats

Binge/Intoxication

Drug Discrimination

Binge/Intoxication

Conditionned place preference (CPP)

Preference

Binge/Intoxication

Operant intrapulmonary self-administration

Electronic cigarette, nicotine, THC, Alcohol, fentanyl

Binge/Intoxication

Operant oral self-administration, two-bottle choice

Alcohol drinking

Binge/Intoxication

Operant intravenous drug self-administration

Cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine, heroin, oxycodone, morphine

Binge/intoxication

Intracranial Self-Stimulation (ICSS)

Decreased in brain reward threshold

Preoccupation/Anticipation

Context-induced reinstatement

Relapse, craving

Preoccupation/Anticipation

Stress-induced reinstatement

Relapse, craving

Preoccupation/Anticipation

Cue-induced reinstatement

Relapse, craving

Preoccupation/Anticipation

Abstinence Deprivation effect

Relapse, craving

Preoccupation/Anticipation

Drug-induced reinstatement

Relapse, craving

Withdrawal/Negative affect

Conditionned place aversion (CPA)

Aversion

Withdrawal/Negative affect

Intracranial Self-Stimulation (ICSS)

Increased in brain reward threshold

Withdrawal/Negative affect

Mechanical sensitivity

Hyperalgesia, Analgesia

Withdrawal/Negative affect

Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field

Anxiety-like behavior

Withdrawal/Negative affect

Bottle brush test

Irritability-like behavior

Withdrawal/Negative affect

Somatic signs

Physical signs of withdrawal